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This book provides an in-depth study of the creative and manufacturing processes behind 50 Product Designs from Concept to Manufacture. The concept stage of the SGPDP then focuses on process synthesis, . supplemental sections of several chapters are provided in PDF ﬁles on the Web site, .. Development Stage 50 Manufacturing Stage 50 Product- Introduction. Question 6: Fibre reinforced plastic composites. Question 7: A cutting test Question Glass fibres production - Reinforced composite design Manufacturing processes and the concepts dealing with d) What particular non -conventional process might be suitable for the companies current product.
Process structure[ edit ] The product development process typically consists of several activities that firms employ in the complex process of delivering new products to the market.
A process management approach is used to provide a structure. In highly complex engineered products e. Such projects typically use an integrated product team approach. The process for managing large-scale complex engineering products is much slower often plus years than that deployed for many types of consumer goods. Requirements speak to what the product should do or have, at varying degrees of specificity, in order to meet the perceived market or business need.
Product design is the development of both the high-level and detailed-level design of the product: which turns the what of the requirements into a specific how this particular product will meet those requirements. This typically has the most overlap with the engineering design process, but can also include industrial design and even purely aesthetic aspects of design. On the marketing and planning side, this phase ends at pre-commercialization analysis[ clarification needed ] stage. Product implementation often refers to later stages of detailed engineering design e.
Fuzzy back-end or commercialization phase represent the action steps where the production and market launch occur. The front-end marketing phases have been very well researched, with valuable models proposed. This company is no longer in business. Finally, there was the weapon that depended for its function on an infrared detector, the first of many parts—lenses, mirrors, motors, power supplies, etc. To save money, the downloading department switched to a cheaper detector, which caused an increase in final test failures.
Since the construction was glue and solder, bad units had to be scrapped. Someone then suggested a redesign of the unit with reversible fasteners to permit disassembly.
But this time more reasonable voices prevailed. Disassembly would not have been advisable because the unit was too complex for field repair. It was a single-use weapon—with a shelf life of five years and a useful life of ten seconds. It simply had to work the first time. Manufacturers can avoid problems like this. One company I know wanted to be able to respond in 24 hours to worldwide orders for its electronic products line—a large variety of features in small-order batches. Engineers decided to redesign the products in modules, with different features in each module.
All the modules are plug compatible, electrically and mechanically. All versions of each module are identical on the outside where assembly machines handle them. The company can now make up an order for any set of features by selecting the correct modules and assembling them, all of this without any human intervention, from electronic order receipt to the boxing of final assemblies. In another company, a high-pressure machine for supplying cutting oil to machine tools requires once-a-day cleaning.
Designers recently reconfigured the machine so that normal cleanout and ordinary repairs can be accomplished without any tools, thus solving some bothersome union work-rule problems. There are no guarantees, of course, but the experiences of these companies illustrate how design decisions should be integrated, informed, and balanced, and how important it is to involve manufacturing engineers, repair engineers, downloading agents, and other knowledgeable people early in the process.
The Design Team and Its Task Multifunctional teams are currently the most effective way known to cut through barriers to good design. Teams can be surprisingly small—as small as 4 members, though 20 members is typical in large projects—and they usually include every specialty in the company. Top executives should make their support and interest clear.
In many Japanese companies, teams like this have been functioning for so long that most of the employees cannot remember another way to design a product. Establishing the team is only the beginning, of course. Teams need a step-by-step procedure that disciplines the discussion and takes members through the decisions that crop up in virtually every design.
In traditional design procedures, assembly is one of the last things considered. My experience suggests that assembly should be considered much earlier. Assembly is inherently integrative.
Weaving it into the design process is a powerful way to raise the level of integration in all aspects of product design.
Its chief functions include: 1. Determining the character of the product, to see what it is and thus what design and production methods are appropriate. Subjecting the product to a product function analysis, so that all design decisions can be made with full knowledge of how the item is supposed to work and all team members understand it well enough to contribute optimally.
Carrying out a design-for-producibility-and-usability study to determine if these factors can be improved without impairing functioning. This involves creating a suitable assembly sequence, identifying subassemblies, integrating quality control, and designing each part so that its quality is compatible with the assembly method. Recently in these pages, David A. Garvin has analyzed eight fundamental dimensions of product quality; and John R.
I would only reiterate that manufacturing engineers and others should have something to say about how to ensure that the product is field repairable, how skilled users must be to employ it successfully, and whether marketability will be based on model variety or availability of future add-ons.
As designers talk with manufacturing or field-service reps, for example, they can make knowledgeable corrections. I know a low-cost source. Product designers and manufacturing engineers used to try to understand these relations by experience and intuition.
Now they have software packages for modeling and designing components to guide them through process choices—software that would have been thought fantastic a generation ago. Managers particularly need to predict reliability, manufacturing costs, and manufacturability. In the past, engineers have dealt with these three issues only after engineering has completed the drawings, the near-final stage in the development cycle.
But by then it may be too late. Two new, integrated, mechanical computer-aided engineering MCAE systems permit engineering teams to test before they build, so they can design for total quality with reliability, performance, and manufacturing costs in mind from the start. Engineers can vary assumptions about materials, speeds, loads, size, and other operating conditions. In this way, developers can both see the effects of hypothetical stresses and estimate product costs while making design decisions.
A company making internal-combustion engines, for example, may use an integrated MCAE system to design reliability and smoothness of operation into the counterbalance for the crankshaft.
The system works as follows: a desktop workstation paints an image of a cylinder with all its operating parts on the screen. The engineer then selects values for counterbalance features like angle, thickness, diameter, etc. As choices are made, the system automatically computes the merits of the design, based on about engineering equations, including compression ratio and stroke. So design variations are tried, evaluated, and discarded with near instantaneous response.
This puts robustness and performance optimization into the very first counter-balance designs. The second new system is an expert system which projects probable production costs for various part or assembly configurations and provides guidance as to their manufacturability. Another parts maker might use this system to project the manufacturability of and costs for, say, its stamped carburetor parts.
Each menu holds progressive layers of possible choices. If the engineer selects metal from the list of materials, the system offers a choice of ferrous or non-ferrous.
Under ferrous metals, one can pick from carbon steel, stainless, cast iron, and so on. There are automatic default values that the engineer might not normally specify, such as surface finish and carbon content. The system also draws on its own data base for manufacturing information like material density and base unit cost. Once the designer completes the menu sequence, the system produces an approximate part cost that includes materials, processing, and tooling expenditures.
Recently I worked on a product containing delicate spinning parts that had to be dynamically balanced to high tolerances. In the original design, partial disassembly of the rotating elements after balancing was necessary before the assembly could be finished, so the final product was rarely well balanced and required a lengthy adjustment procedure.
Since total redesign was not feasible, the team analyzed the reassembly procedure solely as it pertained to balance and concluded that designers needed only to tighten various tolerances and reshape mating surfaces. Simple adjustments were then sufficient to restore balance in the finished product.
Another important goal of product function analysis is to reduce the number of parts in a product. The benefits extend to downloading fewer vendors and transactions , manufacturing fewer operations, material handlings, and handlers , and field service fewer repair parts.
When a company first brings discipline to its design process, reductions in parts count are usually easy to make because the old designs are so inefficient. After catching up, though, hard, creative work is necessary to cut the parts count further.
What is the price point? What are other important requirements or expectations that must be met? This information is vital for defining value. Value stream. Value-stream mapping is a simple but eye-opening experience that identifies all the actions that take a product or service through any process. That process can be in design, production, procurement, HR, administration, delivery, or customer service. The goal is to identify every step that does not create value and then find ways to eliminate those wasteful steps.
Value-stream mapping is sometimes referred to as process re-engineering. Ultimately this exercise also results in a better understanding of the entire business operation. After the waste has been removed from the value stream, the next step is to be sure the remaining steps flow smoothly with no interruptions, delays, or bottlenecks.
This may require breaking down silo thinking and making the effort to become cross-functional across all departments, which can be one of the greatest challenges for lean programs to overcome. However, studies show that this will also lead to huge gains in productivity and efficiency, sometimes as high as percent improvement or more.